The Manufacturing Bay is where you can craft consumables, components you have researched and build upgrades to improve your sub-systems.
To craft components, simply scroll down the list on the left. The selected component will be shown on the right, along with the items required to craft it. Mouse over any of the icons and click craft & confirm to create it.
To craft upgrades and consumables, click the upgrades button underneath the list and then select the desired upgrade. Mouse over any of the icons and click craft & confirm to create it.
Astro-Bot improvement recipes can be found on the Upgrades page or their individual pages.
Regardless of the normal quantity listed for each ingredient, all recipe discoveries require only 1 of each ingredient.
These all require 4 different basic components to craft, and 2 different artifacts to discover. Each basic component is used in exactly 1 advanced recipe, and each artifact is used to discover exactly 4 advanced recipes: this means that in addition to the material cost for upgrades (which are needed to obtain many of the raw materials), you need to craft 1 of every basic component and obtain 12 of each artifact to discover all advanced recipes.